The optimized method of the tomato cultivation by the application of "CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology"
This technique is applicable not only to the Chinese tomato, Europe-America tomato, but also to cherry tomato.
First, Get ready for greenhouse according to the "CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology".
Second, selection of species
Select highly yield, strong resistance, and strong adaptability of the tomato species, such as the QinHuang2008 tomato, BaoGuan No.1, FanRong No.1, the ChaoYan Series tomatoes, KarYiLuo Romania, turquoise, ChunTao, QianXi and so on.
Third, Cropping arrangements
To meet the demands of the market, the Plan of cropping arrangements should be scheduled. For example, planning sell the crop on Chinese New Year's Day, it should breed in mid-August, transplant stock in late-September to early-October.
Fourth, culture of seeding
Proposed to use conventional seeding method. The age of seedlings should be between 45～50 day. Notice to control the insect hazard, the net or yellow plate can be used to keep bud, white plant hopper, thrips and other insect from the crop. Integrate the CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology with these measures to control the fungal diseases.
Five, land preparation and fertilization (distribution of fertilizer types and amount according to production standards)
1, Base fertilizer
(1) Green criteria: new vegetable shed, 60 kg of diammonium phosphate, 20 kg of urea, 25 kg of potassium sulfate, fowl manure fermentation 3-6 cubic meters; old vegetable land, superphosphate 45 kg, fowl manure fermentation 3-6 cubic meters. (It's not necessary to use the chemical fertilizers when the land had continuous cultivated vegetable for more than three years)
(2) Organic standards: each Chinese acre use FCMP 75 kg, fowl manure fermentation 6-9 cubic meters, bean 500 kilograms.
2, Land preparation: try to scatter the base fertilizer evenly and then make a deep ploughing.
Six, Field planting
1, Density: Row space is 0.7 to 0.8 meter, inter plant distance is 0.33 to 0.40 meter. It should plant 2084 to 2887 crops in each Chinese acre
2, It should plant on high ridge, transplant stock along the ridge. Waters totally to make seedling steady after planting (water in morning).
3, Second days seal with the soil, then drill hole along the seedling line between seedlings, insure the hole deep enough to pass though the fermentation layer, and the hole aperture should be between 2 to 4 centimeters.
Seventh, field management
1, Early management
(1) Temperature control
24 to 26 degrees Celsius during the day; 15 to 18 degrees Celsius during the night from time of covering the grass shade to Am 4:00; 7 to 12 degrees Celsius during the night after Am 4:00.
It should water appropriately in the seedlings stage. After the sufficient watering of planting seedlings, it's cultivating with priority of superficial hoe. It's important to control not only the soil moisture particularly not oversized, but also the air humidity not oversized (RH 40%~60%). Watering must conduct under the membrane so as to irrigate well. It's suggested by the drip irrigation method to control the air humidity, for it can reduce the plant disease. When the first-spike fruit is up to the size of an egg, it's time to give a "swelling fruit irrigation".
It's suggested adding nitrogen fertilizer such as 6 kg urea or watering followed with leaching liquid of the fermentation tank according to the non-environmental damage standard; while not giving any fertilizer according to Organic Agriculture standards.
It's essential to support the growth of tomato timely using the hanging line in greenhouse. After planting, the tomato seedlings is getting high and strong, and the axillary buds sprout, but it's no necessary to wipe out the sprout until it is as long as 0.20 meters (commonly known as Feng Zhang pruning). Then using the hanging line act as the tomato growth brace. In the same time the first spike tomato has been grow up, wipe off the malformation tomatoes and keep good fruits as much as possible (which is different from conventional cultivation).
(5) Pest Control
Make use of the net and the yellow plate to control pests in greenhouse. Especially make sure the air outlet covered with pest-proofing net, and the entrance and exit with double net.
Delivery the CO2 wind accompanied with beneficial microorganism spores on schedule with the fan so as to inhibit the pest growth. Keep CO2 in a definite concentration in greenhouse. When leaf dewing maintains the meta-acid environment it's good to destroy the harmful spore.
Another pest control measure is use of leaching liquid of the fermentation. That is, mix 1 volume leaching liquid with 1 to 2 volumes water and then spray it in the surface and reverse side of leaves every 3 to 7 days.
Bordeaux mixture (220:1:2) seven days a spray.
(6) Tillage timely by the surface hoe method, so as to increase the soil air permeability.
(7) It should supply water to fermentation tank on time, generally every seven days.
(8) The air hole of planting row should let the air pass through smoothly, and make the same holes when after watering.
2, The latter management
(1) Temperature Management: Daytime to maintain between 25 to 28 degrees Celsius, while in the night it is had better to remain between 15 to 18 degrees Celsius but the lowest temperature is not less than 10 degrees Celsius.
Requirements of "three notice" (notice weather, notice soil, and notice the status of seedling growth)
Notice weather: Because this is in the mid-winter, keep the temperature and pest control is the key measures in management of greenhouse. And it is necessary to start watering at the end of the cloudy day or the beginning of sunny day, it's prefer to watering in the sunny morning.
Notice soil: Depending on water content of soil and soil conditions, watering frequency is less for the clay soil, that is, a longer time interval of watering, while it needs more watering frequency for the sandy soil. Whatever the kind of soil kinds, it's essential to water evenly and enough.
Notice the status of seedling growth: whether watering or not is determined by seedling growth. There are some experience as follows: first, that the leaves wilting at noon or the leaves are small and black, is the hint of need watering, on the contrary, if the leaves are large and thin no watering needed. Second, the tomatoes' stem is weak and thin, is lack of water.
It's the growing time of tomato in which it should primarily supply nitrogen, potash and calcium fertilizer. It needs 4 kg urea and 6 kg calcium-rich potassium sulfate (or with equivalent other fertilizers) each greenhouse in watering according to the non-environmental damage standard, while no fertilizer is supplied according to the organic agriculture standards as the organic base fertilizer is enough.
No matter which standard it's important mix with the leaching liquid of the fermentation in each watering.
(4) Pest Control
Prevention and cure the disease as follows: ash mildew, leaf mildew, tendons rot, epidemic disease, and bacterial marrow necrosis.
Recommended pesticides according to non-environmental damage standard: Shihui Le, Shigao, Phytophthora Ling, agricultural streptomycin and so on. And it is important spray leaching solution every 3-7 days (a volume leaching liquid mixed with two volume water).
Pinch the cock when the tomato grows to sixth spike fruits (conventional cultivation when 4th). The standard of pruning old leaves is, that pruning off all the leaves behind the fruit spike when the tomatoes change color. Other operation is same as the conventional way.
(6) Harvest timely
When the tomato grow up to 90% the commodity standards it should be promptly harvest.
(7) Uncovers/covers the heat-preserved curtain, and clean plastic film at right moment.
Eighth, the main technical parameters and economic parameters on application of "straw oxygen-enriched CO2 fermentation technology"
The concentration of carbon dioxide can increased 4-6 times than conventional cultivation conditions, the temperature of soil 20 cm deep increased from 5 to 7 degrees Celsius after November, at the best raise more than 11 degrees Celsius; while the air temperatures increase 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (The data come from the greenhouse of Wang Xiao-Jun and Guo Qing-Lin, the farmer of XiaTun village, Henan Zai Town MiYun District Beijing China; technical operator Sun Hua, Wang WanZhao).
On crops' performance: well developed root, stout stems, hypertrophy leaves, nice color, large flowers, increased waxy, thickening pulp, pure taste, good-shape tomato, good marketability, few deformed fruit, and high commodity rate (assessment by Beijing Xiaotangshan special food supply base, technical director: Wang fudong, technical tracker: Li Junjie).
The yield of tomato can increase more than 50 percent.
Ninth Note: Any soil fungicide is prohibited.