The optimized method of the cucumber cultivation by the application of "CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology"
This technique is applicable not only to the North thorn cucumber, dry south cucumber, Tang Shan autumn cucumber, but also to Europe fruit cucumber.
First, Get ready for vinyl house according to the "CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology".
Second, selection of species
Select highly yield, strong resistance, and strong adaptability of the cucumber species, such as the North thorn cucumber - cold-88, cold-912, Zhongnong 27; fruit cucumber，Europe cucumber - such as Daiduoxing and so on.
Third, Cropping arrangements
To meet the demands of the market, the Plan of cropping arrangements should be scheduled. For example, planning sell the crop on New Year's Day, it should breed in mid-September, transplant stock in mid-October to late-October.
Fourth, grafting and culture of seeding
Proposed to use nutrition block seeding method, approach grafting or plug grafting method. When the age of seeding is up to 30~32 days it’s suitable to graft. Notice to control the insect hazard, the net or yellow plate can be used to keep bud, white plant hopper, thrips and other insect from the crop. Integrate the CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology with these measures to control the fungal diseases.
Five, land preparation and fertilization (distribution of fertilizer types and amount according to production standards)
1, Base fertilizer
(1) Green criteria: new vegetable shed, 35 kg of diammonium phosphate, 20 kg of urea, 40 kg of potassium sulfate, fowl manure fermentation 3-6 cubic meters; old vegetable land, superphosphate 50 kg per Chinese acre, fowl manure fermentation 3-6 cubic meters. (It's not necessary to use the chemical fertilizers when the land has continuous cultivated vegetable for more than three years)
(2) Organic standards: each Chinese acre use FCMP 75 kg, fowl manure fermentation 6-9 cubic meters, bean 500 kilograms.
2, Land preparation: try to make the base fertilizer evenly and then make a deep plough.
Six, Field planting
1, Density: Row space is 0.65 to 0.75 meter, inter plant distance is 0.25 to 0.27 meter. Each Chinese acre should plant crops between 3,294 and 4,105.
2, It should plant on high ridge with the different size line, transplant stock with the revealed lump method. The height of the ridge should be consistent, when two lines were on east and west direction, keep dislocation between them. Waters totally to make seedling steady (water in morning).
3, Second days seal with the soil, then drill hole along the seedling line between seedlings, insure the hole deep enough to pass though the fermentation layer, and the hole aperture should between 2 to 4 centimeters.
Seventh, field management
1, Early management
(1) Temperature control
28 to 30 degrees Celsius during the day; 15 to 18 degrees Celsius during the night from time of covering the grass shade to Am 4:00; 10 to 12 degrees Celsius during the night after Am 4:00.
It should be appropriate to watering in the seedlings stage. After the sufficient watering of planting seedlings, cultivating is priority of superficial hoe. When the cucumber grows 12 to 16 pieces of leaves, it's important to control not only the soil moisture particularly not to be oversized, but also the air humidity not to be oversized. When two of the root cucumber or the preliminary cucumber have grown to the half size of product, it's time to water the crop sufficiently. Watering must conduct under the membrane so as to irrigate well. It's suggested by the drip irrigation method to control the air humidity, for it can reduce the plant disease.
It's suggested not to give any fertilizer in this period, but water followed with leaching liquid of the fermentation tank can be permitted.
Do Pinching at the right moment. When the first piece of main leaf is about to launches, pinch this axil, be sure to remains the length 0.5 to 0.8 centimeter.
It's essential to support the growth of cucumber timely by using the hanging line in greenhouse. Hanging line timely is the key to the pruning of seedling stage, so the excessive delay of hanging would affect the growth of cucumber.
(5) Pest Control
Make use of the net and the yellow plate to control pests in greenhouse. Especially make sure the air outlet covered with pest-proofing net, and the entrance and exit with double net.
Delivery the CO2 wind accompanied with beneficial microorganism spores on schedule with the fan so as to inhibit the pest growth. Keep CO2 in a definite concentration in greenhouse. When leaf dewing maintains the meta-acid environment it's good to destroy the harmful spore.
Another pest control measure is use of leaching liquid of the fermentation. That is, mix 1 volume leaching liquid with 1 to 2 volumes water and then spray it in the surface and reverse side of leaves every 3 to 7 days.
Bordeaux mixture (220:1:2) seven days a spray.
(6) Removal root cucumber timely
When the root cucumber grow to the size of sales request, it should be removed it timely, otherwise it will affect the normal growth of the other cucumber.
(7) Tillage timely with surface hoe method, so as to increase the soil air permeability.
(8) It should be promptly supply water to fermentation tank. In general, supply water seven days one times. When it's a day in sunlight open the air supply fan to maintain the concentration of carbon dioxide.
(9) The air hole of planting row should let the air pass through smoothly, and repeated make the same holes after watering.
2, The latter part of management
(1) Temperature Management: Daytime to maintain at 28 to 32 degrees Celsius, while in the night it's had better remain at 15 to 18 degrees Celsius but the lowest temperature is not less than 10 degrees Celsius.
Requirements of "three notice" (notice weather, notice soil, and notice the status of seedling growth)
Notice weather: Because this is in the winter, keep the greenhouse temperature and pest control is the key measures. So it is necessary to water in the end of the cloudy day or the beginning of sunny day, it's prefer to watering in the sunny morning.
Notice soil: Depending on soil water content and soil water conditions, watering frequency is less for the clay soil, that is, a longer time interval of watering, while it needs more watering frequency for the sandy loam. Whatever the kind of soil kinds, it's essential to water evenly and enough.
Notice the status of seedling growth: whether watering or not is determined by seedling growth. There are some experience as follows: first, that the leaves wilting at noon or the leaves are small and black, is the hint of need watering, on the contrary, if the leaves are large and thin no watering needed. Second, the beard of seedling is curving, thin, hard and chewing bitter is lack of water. Third, if the leading leaf is thickness and unfolds smoothly, it's no need of watering, on the contrary, leading leaf is thin, small, unfold slowly, and even the abnormal flower and melon appeared it's the phenomenon of water lack.
It's the growing time of cucumber in which it should primarily supply potash and nitrogen fertilizer. It needs 4 kg urea and 6 kg potassium sulfate (or with equivalent fertilizers) each greenhouse in watering according to the non-environmental damage standard, while add no fertilizer according to the organic agriculture standards for the organic base fertilizer is enough.
No matter which standard it's important watering with the leaching liquid of the fermentation.
(4) Pest Control
After Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera under control the cucumber root knot nematode pests is the main pest to challenge. The efficient solution is to do soil treatment with the Agents of decomposed organic matter developed and produced by EUMB, and then watering through the root with 5% of the 500-times-Avermectin in the medium growing period.
In addition to rolling seedlings and pinch beards timely, it is important to drop seedlings, wipe off the old leaves. Be careful not to damage the leaves or pull off the seedlings. It is normal to retain as many as 16 functional leaves. The concept of old leave is that the leave is more than 42 days old. Also it's necessary to removed staminate flower and deformed fruit.
(6) Timely harvest
When the cucumber grows up to the commodity standards it should be promptly harvested, it's appropriate to harvest in the morning.
(7) Uncovers/covers the heat-preserved curtain, and clean plastic film at right moment.
Curtain-uncover standards: the temperature differentia in greenhouse is not more than one degree Celsius before and after pulling up the curtain.
Curtain-recover standards: the temperature in greenhouse is 18 degrees Celsius after re-covered the curtain one hour.
Clean greenhouse film is an important measure in winter, it’s should be clean film timely after uncovering the curtain in the morning.
Eighth, management in disaster weather
After the several cloudy days a sudden well sunny day comes, take the way of scatters the pied curtain so as to avoid sudden death syndrome in seedlings.
Ninth, the main technical parameters and economic parameters on application of "CO2 slow release oxygen-enriched straw fermentation technology"
The concentration of carbon dioxide can increased 4-6 times than conventional cultivation conditions, the temperature of soil 20 cm deep increased by 5 to 7 degrees Celsius after November, at the best raise more than 11 degrees Celsius; while the air temperatures increase 2 to 3 degrees Celsius (Banqiao village, Zhaoquanying Town Shunyi District Beijing China Zhang Wan-sheng, Wu Chang-hai).
On crops'performance: well developed root, stout stems, hypertrophy leaves, nice color, large flowers, increased waxy, thickening pulp, pure taste, good-shape cucumber, good marketability, few deformed fruit, and high commodity rate (assessment by Beijing Xiaotangshan special food supply base, technical director: Wang Fudong, technical tracker: Li Junjie).
The yield of cucumber can increase more than 50 percent.
Tenth, Note: Any soil fungicide is prohibited.